Traditional recipes

Gran's Christmas pudding recipe

Gran's Christmas pudding recipe

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  • Dessert
  • Puddings

We worked out the other day this recipe is probably from around 1890. Best if you can make it two weeks ahead.

33 people made this

IngredientsServes: 12

  • 250g butter
  • 155g brown soft sugar
  • 4 eggs
  • 250g self raising flour
  • 250g plain flour
  • ½ teaspoon each nutmeg and mixed spice
  • 50g fresh breadcrumbs
  • 250g raisins
  • 250g currants
  • 250g sultanas
  • 125g mixed peel and cherries
  • 25 - 50ml of whisky or brandy

MethodPrep:15min ›Cook:7hr ›Ready in:7hr15min

  1. Beat the butter and sugar in a large bowl until creamy; add the eggs one at a time beating well after each one.
  2. In another bowl, mix together the flours, spices, breadcrumbs and dried fruit. Add this to the butter and egg mixture and pour in whisky or brandy; mix well.
  3. Dip a 60cm square (approx) piece of unbleached cotton cloth in boiling water then lay over a bowl or colander.
  4. Put the pudding mixture in the cloth and then tie the cloth securely with string, leaving 4cm or so space at the top between the pudding and the string for the mixture to expand.
  5. Place the pudding into a large pot of boiling water and cook for 5 hours. Check it every half hour or so and top up with more boiling water if required.
  6. Remove from water and hang immediately in a cool, or at least airy, place till Christmas day.
  7. On the day, boil for 2 hours till hot, then serve with ice cream, custard or brandy butter.

How to steam Christmas pudding

See our How to steam Christmas pudding guide to get step-by-step instructions for steaming your pudding to perfection.

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Reviews & ratingsAverage global rating:(3)

Reviews in English (4)

Made this last Christmas and plan to do it again this year. Lovely traditional recipe and the entire family enjoyed it!-13 Nov 2012

I love the use of the peels and the cherries. I use cherries in all my fruit breads. If your pudding did not expand then the self raising flour might have been too old. I would add a teaspoon of baking soda (bicarbonate soda) and about a teaspoon of baking powder. Start cooking the pudding right away because the baking soda loses its punch if left to sit.-02 Nov 2017

by tweeteve

Something else.Do not leave space at top before you tie off pudding as it went soggy at the top. Next time I will tie it tight against the pudding as it did not expand anyway.-11 Jan 2010(Review from this site AU | NZ)

Christmas Pudding with The Royal Mint & Stir-Up Sunday

If you read my post from earlier in the week, you will know that we have been making our first Christmas Pudding for Stir Up Sunday, using The Royal Mint's six pence.

We have done our Stir Up Sunday slightly earlier than most so we can share with you, how we got on making our Christmas Pudding. Stir Up Sunday this year falls on 20th November and you still have until this Sunday (13th November 2016) to order your special six pence from The Royal Mint to place in your pudding.

Violet & Tara got really stuck in with the mixing of the pudding. It's not actually compulsory to use every bowl in the kitchen when measuring out the ingredients but we found it great for the kids too see what was going into the pudding. They could grate the apple, lemon and orange, grate the chocolate, chop the cherries. Even the youngest kitchen helper can whisk the egg.

The most technical part of the whole process was actually steaming the pudding. This is a great recipe for getting kids involved with but for the actual steaming, I found the following steps worked best:

  1. Use a rectangle of baking parchment on top of a similar sized rectangle of tinned foil
  2. Create a fold in the parchment and foil - This will expand as the steam cooks the pudding
  3. Fold the foil/parchment over the top of the lidded bowl and tie with ribbon or string (we had no string and the ribbon looked prettier). Fold the end of the ribbon underneath the side of the ribbon to create a handle - This will make it so much easier to remove the bowl from the pan.
  4. Steam the pudding for at least 4 hours in a pan of slow boiling water - The water should come half way up the bowl and be kept topped up. The pudding is done when a skewer comes out of the mixture clean (Yes, it is awkward when you have to remove the foil lid to test)

Other blogger friends using The Royal Mint Christmas Pudding recipe and six pence:

* Camilla's daughter is getting in on the act over at Fab Food 4 All

* Jen from The MadHouse started her little ones on Christmas Pudding really early - Big fans that family!

Mini Chocolate Biscuit Puddings Recipe by Siúcra

Chocolate biscuit cake is decorated with Siúcra Rollout Icing Sugar to give it a festive twist in this delicious recipe that is sure to satisfy chocoholics this Christmas. Easy to make, these bite-sized pudding treats require no baking and will add a sweet end to any meal.


Siúcra Rollout Icing Sugar
Siúcra Icing Sugar
50g Siúcra Caster Sugar
100g dark chocolate
100g milk chocolate
150g unsalted butter
30g cocoa
115g golden syrup
200g digestive biscuits broken into small pieces
Red & green icing colour

Required: 12 hole muffin tray

1. Put a small strip of parchment paper into each hole of the muffin tray. This will allow you to lift out the cakes once they have set.
2. Melt the butter, chocolate, golden syrup, cocoa and Siúcra Caster Sugar over a very gentle heat.
3. Keep stirring until it has all melted.
4. Pour over the broken biscuits and mix well.
5. Spoon into the holes of the muffin tray and press with the back of a spoon into the corners and leave in the fridge to set.
6. Break off some of the white Siúcra Rollout Icing Sugar and knead until it softens.
7. Dust your work surface with Siúcra Icing Sugar.
8. Roll the Siúcra Rollout Icing Sugar out to a thin layer.
9. Cut out 8 splat shapes to go over the puddings. Carefully lift each splat onto each pudding.
10. Tear off two more pieces of Siúcra Rollout Icing Sugar and colour one piece green for the holly leaves and the other red for the holly berries. To colour the icing put a small amount of colour onto the white icing and knead it in until it is well combined and there are no streaks left. (You may want to wear gloves when doing this.) Add more colour if necessary.
12. Cut out holly leaf shapes and roll out some red berries and place on top of the splats.

Traditional Christmas Pudding Recipe by Margaret M. Johnson with Wine Pairing

The original figgy pudding, created sometime in the 1400s, was a dish of dried figs, dates, raisins, and spices boiled in almond milk. Also called plum pudding – despite the fact it contains no plums whatsoever – this steamed or boiled pudding was first recorded as Christmas Pudding in 1858 in a novel by British author Anthony Trollope.

The name is probably derived from the substitution of raisins for dried plums as an ingredient in pies during medieval times. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, dishes made with raisins retained the term “plum,” and in the Victorian era, Christmas plum puddings became a well-loved dessert. Curiously, plum pudding was a latecomer to Ireland, but it caught on quickly and today it is one of the best-loved Christmas desserts.

This recipe, originally published in Christmas Flavors of Ireland, is almost always served with Brandy Butter, also called brandy hard sauce. It has just been republished in Favorite Flavors of Ireland.


1 cup/150 g sultanas (golden raisins)
1 cup/150 g currants
¼ cup/30 g chopped dried fruit, such as cranberries, raisins, and figs
¼ cup/30 g chopped dried apricots
¼ cup/30 g candied cherries, halved
¼ cup/30 g candied mixed peel
⅓ cup/75 ml brandy or dark rum o Juice and grated zest of 1 orange
8 tbsp. Unsalted Kerrygold Irish butter, at room temperature
½ cup/115 g (packed) dark brown sugar
3 large eggs, beaten
¼ cup/30 g chopped crystallized ginger
1 apple, peeled, cored, and grated
1¼ cups/150g all-purpose flour
1 cup/115 g white bread crumbs
1 tsp. Mixed Spice or pumpkin pie spice
1 tsp. Ground cinnamon

1. Combine the fruits, candied cherries, and mixed peel in a large glass jar or bowl.
2. Add the brandy or rum, orange zest and juice, and then cover let stand at room temperature overnight.
3. Butter a 6-cup/1.5 L pudding mould or deep, heatproof bowl and place a round of wax paper on the bottom.
4. In a large bowl, beat the butter and sugar with an electric mixer on medium until light and fluffy. Gradually beat in the eggs.
5. Stir in the soaked fruits, ginger, apple, flour, bread crumbs, mixed spice, and cinnamon.
6. Spoon the batter into the prepared mould and smooth the top.
7. Cover with a double piece of buttered wax paper and a double piece of aluminium foil. Fold together and make a pleat in the centre (to allow for the pudding to expand). Tie the paper and foil in place with kitchen twine.
8. Place the mould in a large saucepan or Dutch oven fitted with a rack, or put a folded kitchen towel on the bottom of the pot to prevent direct contact with the bottom of the pot.
9. Add enough hot water to the pot to come halfway up the sides of the mould or dish. Cover and steam on medium-low heat for 2–2½ hours, or until a skewer inserted into the centre comes out clean. (Check the water level once or twice during cooking and add more water when necessary.)
10. Carefully remove the pudding mould from the pot. Remove the foil and parchment, and run a metal spatula around the sides to loosen. Place a serving plate over the mould and invert.
11. Slice and serve warm with brandy butter or sauce.
12. If not serving immediately, let the pudding cool, covered, in the mould. When completely cool, unmould, wrap in plastic wrap, then aluminium foil. Refrigerate the pudding for up to one week or freeze. To serve, put the pudding back into its mould, cover with waxed paper or foil, and steam for 1 hour, as above, or until heated through. Thaw frozen pudding before reheating as above.

Brandy Butter


8 tbsp. Unsalted Kerrygold Irish butter, at room temperature
1¼ cups/175 g confectioners’ sugar, sifted
2 tbsp. Brandy

1. In a small bowl, beat the butter and sugar together with an electric mixer on medium until light and fluffy.
2. Add the brandy and beat until smooth.
3. Transfer to a small bowl or crock, cover, and refrigerate for up to 2 weeks.
4. Return to room temperature before serving. (Makes about ½ cup/115 g)


Our recommended Wine Pairing for this Recipe
Gérard Bertrand Rivesaltes Vin doux naturel 1989 €27.99 now €23.99
This wine has a stunning nose, you will almost forget to sip it. It has tawny like characteristics on the nose (think dried tea). It has aromas of dried fruits such as figs and prunes with a nutty hints such as hazelnuts. There are some dried floral touches too along with some earthy tones and hints of dried orange rind. This wine has such a complex nose.

All the beautiful aromas flow onto the palate with a silky smooth body. This wine is medium bodied and although it has sweetness it is not cloying, it has high acidity and low tannin so as to balance the autumnal and dried fruits such as apricots and prunes. The walnut and dry forest floor tones give this wine even more depth.

This is a fortified wine that will pair well with this moist spicy pudding. The deep flavours from the pudding and the wine will marry to give you a sumptuous dessert.

Available from O’Brien’s Wines Nationwide or Online.

Margaret M. Johnson is an American author who has devoted her career to Irish cuisine. Her love for Ireland has produced several cookbooks dedicated to promoting traditional and modern Irish recipes and produce including: Christmas Flavors of Ireland (2013), Flavors of Ireland (2012) The Irish Pub Cookbook (2006) The Irish Spirit (2005) The New Irish Table (2003) The Irish Heritage Cookbook (1999) Cooking With Irish Spirits (1995).

In tribute to her thirty year love affair with Ireland her latest collection is entitled ‘Favorite Flavors of Ireland’ and is a retrospective, looking back at her most loved dishes. Perfect for food lovers at home and abroad, Margaret’s book is a veritable tour of the country, taking you on a journey through the seasons. Read more about Margarets love for Ireland here.

At 95 years old, the lovely Dulcie May Booker shares her 76 best recipes and cooking tips in this handsome volume peppered with reminiscences and photographs of her life as dressmaker, market gardener and homemaker extraordinaire. Compiled by Dulcie's granddaughter, talented 'foodie' Natalie Oldfield, this cookbook will satisfy the current interest in traditional New Zealand cookery in a personal way, by focusing on one woman's authentic, tried-and-true versions of the nation's favourite dishes. Many New Zealanders will be able to identify with Dulcie's story of a life filled with 'labours of love' and sustained by land and sea - or recognise it as similar to that of their own 'Gran'. Beautifully-produced and laden with at least one gorgeous full page image per recipe, Grans Kitchen is practical nostalgia: it contains easy- to-follow instructions on how to make Dulcie's excellent, classic fare, from hearty fisherman breakfasts to dance supper dainties, as well as Dulcie's secrets to award-winning baking, cooking and preserves.

Continuing the home cooks' tradition of sharing recipes with each other, tucked in with Dulcie's recipes are favourites from family and friends, some old, some new.

Our Traditional Christmas Pudding Recipe with a Twist 16

This Traditional Christmas Pudding Recipe with a Twist with a twist is brought to you in conjunction with The Royal Mint and their special silver six pence who commissioned us to share our Stir Up Sunday traditions. Growing up in my house Christmas dinner was a family event which always culminated with a fantastic flaming Christmas pudding and the hunt for the sixpence. I love that we have carried that tradition on.

My FIL loves Christmas Pudding. Seriously loves it and would eat it every month throughout the year if he got the chance and Mini was pretty much weaned on Christmas Pudding as he turned six months old on Christmas eve and that first Christmas was spent with my in-laws and my father in law insisted on introducing him to Christmas Pudding which he loved and had not one, but two portions!

I have been making Christmas Puddings using this recipe since before the boys were born and it brings me so much joy to include the boys in our Stir Up Sunday Tradition. Stir up Sunday falls on the last Sunday before advent, so this year 20th November and it is a day where families gather together in the kitchen of their home to mix and steam the Christmas pudding on the last Sunday before advent. There is even a poem that you say as you do the stirring.

We will be putting a newly minted silver six pence from The Royal Mint in one of our servings of Christmas Pudding. The Royal Mint has been minting coins for over 1,000 years. From the 13th century they were based at The Tower of London for 500 years and provide millions of coins to the domestic market (circulative and commemorative) each year. You can get your Royal Mint Christmas Sixpence online in The Royal Mint e-store.

This Christmas Pudding recipe was passed down from my grandma and we added our own little twist with morello cherries rather than glace and also with dark chocolate.


Place sugar in TM bowl and mill for 6 seconds on speed 9.

Add all other ingredients except brandy and cream. Cook for 5 minutes on 90 degrees on speed 4.

Cool slightly and add brandy and cream. Mix for 10 seconds on speed 4.

Enjoy on your Christmas pudding.

Accessories you need

Spatula TM31
Measuring cup

This recipe was provided to you by a Thermomix ® customer and has not been tested by Vorwerk Thermomix ® or Thermomix ® in Australia and New Zealand.
Vorwerk Thermomix ® and Thermomix ® in Australia and New Zealand assume no liability, particularly in terms of ingredient quantities used and success of the recipes.
Please observe the safety instructions in the Thermomix ® instruction manual at all times.

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To which Good Food Guide restaurant critic Michael Harden adds, "or dreaded. If you grow up with a great Christmas pudding, a beautifully made one then that is your benchmark. If your aunt made one with stale spices and cheap vine fruit then that is what a Christmas pudding is to you."

Good Food sought out the best puddings in the country, along with everyday puddings available from supermarkets. We ended up with 15 puddings in all.

The judges agree they are seeking a pudding that looks good on the table. It needs to have a pleasing aroma and a texture that holds together when served. The fruit should be of good quality and feel good in the mouth. Sharp shards of badly chopped citrus peel or nuts are unpleasant and will be marked down. The butter or suet has to taste fresh and have a pleasing texture.

Whether the pudding is a dense and moist version or a lighter, more cake-like leavened pudding, it should still have a really good mouth feel – dryness will be marked down. Spices should be balanced and fresh-smelling, alcohol should be of good quality but never overpowering. Most importantly, the pudding has to have the ability to evoke memories of Christmases past.

Those puddings that did not meet these criteria were knocked out of the race. One of those is made with suet and leaves a rancid taste in the mouth. Another has an unusual aroma of old dusty spices with large pieces of fruit that felt odd to chew. Another pudding was way to sharp and acidic. It is interesting to note that across the board a lot of the puddings were quite wet, meaning there was a noticeable amount of syrup created when the puddings were reheated in their plastic bowls or heavy-duty vacuum-packed plastic bags as per the instructions on the label. This leads to discussion that traditional puddings are wrapped in cloth and "breathe" as they mature, losing moisture to the atmosphere.

Each pudding was assessed on its appearance, aroma, texture and taste. Photo: Kristoffer Paulsen

So, after much debate, deliberation, tasting, sniffing and chewing, the judges scored the puddings with professional objectivity, leaving us
with the Twelve Puddings of Christmas, which are ranked here in order. The results were not what we expected.

Aldi Specially Selected Vintage Christmas Pudding

/>Mandi's Kitchen Pudding. Photo: Richard Cornish

It arrives at the table, a traditional cloth pudding, steaming hot but slightly puckered "as if it is holding its breath", says Michael Harden. To the nose it has a good punch of citrus and alcohol with a dark toasted aroma. When sliced, it reveals a pudding packed with a mass of vine fruit melded perfectly with a dense but not stodgy cake-like pudding. With its pleasing cloud of mixed spice and fruity aroma, the judges comment that this is the one that most reminds them of their family Christmases. It was made for Aldi by Hunter Heritage Gourmet Foods in Newcastle using 45 per cent Australian dried fruit, free-range eggs, and Australian brandy and rum, giving it a big 4.6 millilitres of alcohol per 100 grams. "This ticks all the boxes for me," says Good Food Guide co-editor Roslyn Grundy. "A great well-rounded pudding," says Kirsten Tibballs.

Coles Finest Luxury Pudding

/>None of the judges knew where each pudding came from. Photo: Kristoffer Paulsen

"It's either regal and glorious with that crown of fruit and nuts on top or the Carmen Miranda of puddings," Paul Wilson says when this incredibly decorative pudding is served. Although his chef declined to dust it with the bag of gold icing included, this over-the-top New Zealand-made pudding wowed the judges with its spicy aroma and hits of French brandy. Despite some judges noting that it is overwhelmed in treacly syrup and is slightly too sweet, they feel this is balanced with the natural acidity of whole fruit.

Stephen's Fine Foods Traditional Rich Christmas Pudding

With its even dome shape and deep tan colour, this pudding pleases the judges who grew up with the tradition of a lighter pudding, this one aerated with baking powder. English-born chef Howard Stamp from The Lincoln says, "there is a lovely waft of spice at the forefront followed by a good boozy note – like mulled wine". This pudding is made in Mansfield in Victoria's High Country by commercial chef Stephen Morrice to a family recipe and although lighter in colour and texture than the traditional dark plum pud, it really puts a smile on the face of judges.

Silver Penny Puddings Traditional Christmas Pudding

The beautifully designed, whimsical decorative tin this pudding is packed in evokes childhood memories of Christmas before the pudding is even reheated. But the judges saw none of that. Just a fat pudding on a white plate that looks "cute", says Michael Harden. "A shiny and happy pudding." "Warm and fragrant like a hug from your nan," says Wilson. Rich and slightly sticky with plump fruit, it resonates strongly with the judges as being "old-fashioned – in a good way". The most expensive of the puddings, it is made with suet and stout in central Victoria by the same people responsible for the Four Pillars Gin Pudding. The perfect gift pudding.

Woolworths Matured Fruit Pudding

Imported from Britain, this dome-shaped pudding has the aroma of freshly baked cake and alcohol with hits of sweet fruit and hints of spice. Dark and slightly brooding it is very dense and sticky, filling the mouth with pieces of fruit and the nose with aromas of toasted nut and muscatels. The judges are less than impressed with the final note, an aroma they describe as "rum essence". That said, a few comment that they would consider a second helping.

Mandi's Kitchen Christmas Pudding

A traditional cloth pudding large enough to feed a big family and made in Bayside Melbourne, it includes dates, which may explain the rich dark flavours that intermingle with a "superb spice profile". This pudding sits on the lighter textured side of the fence that had English-born Howard Stamp saying, "It's just like me mum's."

Pud For All Seasons Traditional Plum Pudding

If you like dark puddings, then you will love this traditionally shaped bowl pudding that brings up the terms "treacle and fruit" from the judges. As well as words such as "nostalgia" and "classic". Made in central Victoria, it is not overly spiced and, as Neil Hargreaves comments, "will work perfectly when drowned with brandy butter and custard".

Pudding Lane Classic Pudding

This cloth-bound pudding comes from Newcastle's award-winning Pudding Lane and is noted by Hargreaves as "best texture of the day". Tibballs notes it has a large quantity of good quality fruit but perhaps too much alcohol. Other judges agree that the alcohol overpowers the spice. But it rates well as it appears very authentic, old-school and homemade.

Louisa Morris Cakes Christmas Pudding

Made with Rutherglen muscat, this pudding combines vine fruit with dates and prunes. It is not a heavy, dense, moist pudding instead, it is more acceptable for those who prefer a more cake-like offering.

David Jones Handmade Christmas Pudding

With its powerful and predominant orange aroma and flavour, there was no other pudding like this one from David Jones. Described as being sponge-like and light compared with the others, it was the least dense of the 12 puddings.

Frank Food and Me Nutty Gran's Christmas Pudding

Tan-coloured and enveloped in a pleasant cloud of powdered ginger aroma and caramelised fruit, this is a pudding suitable for the smaller family. It has a dense cake-like texture dotted with almonds – whole and in pieces – and would be made complete with all the sweet trimmings.

Barossa Farm Abbotsford Country House Christmas Pudding

A great big cloth pudding packed with organic vine fruit with lovely flavours of quality fruit. The fruit dominates the texture, making the pudding quite crumbly. It is moist and has the full-flavoured tang of beef suet from the Barossa angus cattle raised on the property where the kitchen is situated. Made with SA stout and local brandy, this a great pudding for fruit lovers.

Many thanks to the judges: Michael Harden, senior reviewer Good Food Guide Neil Hargreaves, Australian Food Awards and N.B. Food Consultancy Roslyn Grundy, Good Food Guide co-editor Howard Stamp chef, The Lincoln Kirsten Tibballs, Savour Chocolate and Patisserie School Paul Wilson, chef and owner Wilson and Market.

The judging process

This was a blind judging process. The judges had no idea where the pudding they were tasting came from or who made it. They assessed each pudding on its appearance, aroma, texture and taste, and against their own professional experience. Judging was done mostly silently with no comments allowed on the pudding being judged so as not to skew assessment.

The judges were given 20 points for each of: appearance, aroma, texture and flavour. And they were given 20 points for X-factor in which they were to ask themselves the questions, "Does this remind me in a good way of a quality pudding I have had in the past? Does it evoke the feeling of Christmas?" The scores were totalled to give a score out of 100. These were then averaged out. Discussion was allowed once the puddings had been judged.

Christmas Dinner – The Plum Pudding

Gran’s pudding bowl was a different shape but the pudding itself looked much the same as this pic.

The rich plum pudding flavour was guaranteed by having been cooked and aged several months before Christmas. Plum puds don’t contain plums but do contain lots of spices, dried fruit, butter or suet, eggs, sugar, milk and flour. They’re not hard to make, and there are lots of recipes around. This recipe sounds pretty good. I haven’t made one for years, but I used to have several hanging up drying in the laundry each year by about September.

For us kids this highlight of Christmas dinner was the pudding, because of the silver pre-decimal threepence and sixpence coins that were put into the pudding before cooking, and we all knew that somewhere in there was a two shilling piece. After lunch we had to turn them in in exchange for actual legal tender at the going rate, so they could be reused next year. Gran carefully served the pudding, doing her best to make sure that every portion contained a coin. I don’t think think anyone in our family ever swallowed one of those little threepences, but Michael says that his own grandmother, Nanna Boutcher, always seemed to do so, because despite carefully controlled allocations of coins during serving, she always claimed she’d missed out, which might have been deliberate. At Gran’s table, it took us a couple of years to work out that during the pudding course, Aunt Mary always seemed to swallow a coin. She’d suddenly jump up from her chair, clutch her throat and, making choking sounds, would run from the room. Gran or Joyce would run after her, leaving the rest of us sitting in the dining room, shocked and worried that she was choking. It happened several years in a row, by which time none of us believed in Father Christmas any more, either. It became her annual stunt, and we learned to wait for it.

After that large lunch, it was all hands to the washing up and clearing away before we assembled out in the garden for the annual family photo. It had to be taken before we sat down to exchange presents, and it always seemed to take ages to get everyone in the same spot in the garden, arranged in some order and all looking to the camera at the same time. For many years we Padman girls wore the identical pretty white hail spot muslin party dresses trimmed with blue ribbon that Mum made, always from the same pattern. With generous hems and seams, they could be taken in and let out, taken up and let down as long as they held together. Mum instilled in us that when having your photo taken you should pose without seeming to, with a relaxed open facial expression, and informally relaxed hands (never, ever holding a glass of anything) with feet carefully placed at a slight angle to each other, one foot slightly forward, heel tucked into the other instep. We learned it well – the evidence is there, year after year!

At long last it was time for present giving, followed by afternoon tea, complete with mince pies and slices of Christmas cake. When we left for home around 7pm we certainly needed no more feeding until the next morning, and there was still time that evening for another round of jam making.